Several factors influence stock market participation. These include trust in the stock market, intelligence, gender, and religion. However, the data suggests that participation rates differ significantly across different population groups. These findings suggest that the stock market participation rate does not necessarily correlate with income. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that determine participation rates.
First, marketing costs are associated with stock market participation. Firms that can afford to pay higher marketing costs are more likely to participate. Second, the marketing costs of a firm also affect stock market participation. The lower these costs, the more likely the firm is to participate. Third, investment costs are significant for stock market participation. These costs can be reduced with technological innovations.
Another factor that influences stock market participation is income inequality. In South Africa, women who acquire knowledge of financial markets may not have the resources to act on that knowledge. In contrast, men who are financially stable are more likely to participate in the stock market. The authors also examined the association between financial literacy and stock market participation, and found that men were more likely to be financially literate than women.
Furthermore, a household’s risk tolerance and stock market participation are not correlated. However, households who choose not to participate in the stock market are more likely to choose a risk-free asset. Hence, even a small amount of participation in the stock market is preferred over risk aversion. In addition, household risk is not correlated with the stock market return, which means that a household will not end up with a zero stockholding.